PILES/ HEMORRHOIDS : Kshara-sutra treatment

Kshara Sutra Therapy in the treatment of Pilonidal Sinus
Anal stenosis; Causes, prevention and treatment

PILES/ HEMORRHOIDS : Kshara-sutra treatment

The disease piles is as old as the history of mankind. A lot of people suffer from it and many of them hide the disease and reach to the doctor when the disease become chronic and only surgical option is left then usually.

Hemorrhoids are defined as varicose condition of haemorrhoidal plexus. In modern era, Hippocrates, The Father of Modern Medicine (450 B.C.) has also described the method of diagnosing ano-rectal disorders. Later on, in the present era Turell (1960) told that about 70% of human beings suffer from haemorrhoids and 40% of them need surgery. About 10% cases remain undiagnosed and do not visit doctor. Golligher (1967) expressed that the incidence of hemorrhoids increases with the age and at least 50% of the people over the age of 50 have some degree of hemorrhoids. Ferguson (1973) reported that 100% of the population has hemorrhoid but 50% may be symptomatic. Men seem to be affected more as compared to women. It is very common above the age of 30 years.

A case of 2nd degree Primary Hemorrhoids



Primary causes

1.                  Heriditary

2.                  Constipation

3.                  Diarrhea and dysentery

4.                  Faulty habits of defecation

5.                  Dietary habits

6.                  Anatomical factors 
Secondary causes

1.                  Portal obstruction

2.                  Carcinoma of rectum

3.                  Abdominal tumors

4.                  Pregnancy


A. In relation to site of origin

1.                  Internal hemorrhoids

2.                  External hemorrhoids

3.                  Interno-external hemorrhoids

B. In relation to pathological anatomy

1.                  Primary hemorrhoids

2.                  Secondary hemorrhoids

C. In relation to pathophysiologically

1.                  Mucosal

2.                  Vascular

D. In relation to facilitate the line of management

1.                  1st degree hemorrhoids

2.                  2nd degree hemorrhoids

3.                  3rd degree hemorrhoids

4.                  4th degree hemorrhoids


1.          Bleeding during defaecation

2.          Prolapse of mass during defaecation

3.          Discharge

4.          Anal irritation

5.          Pain

6.          Anaemia (If bleeding is persistent and severe)


  1. Hemorrhage
  2. Strangulation
  3. Thrombosis
  4. Ulceration
  5. Gangrene
  6. Suppuration
  7. Fibrosis
  8. Pylophlebities


It should be differentiated from;

1.                  Partial prolapse of rectum

2.                  Rectal polyp

3.                  Carcinoma of anal canal

4.                  Multiple small ulcers in the rectum

5.                  Condyloma lata and accuminatum

6.                  Sentinel tag

In Modern science the following types of treatments are available to treat the disease;

1.       Medical treatment

2.       Sclerotherapy

3.       Barron Band Ligation

4.       Lord’s manual dilation

5.       Cryosurgery

6.       Pedicle ligation
7.       Haemorrhoidectomy

8. Infrared coagulation 
ayurvedic treatment of haemorrhoids: 
Application of Kshar sutra in Arshas (Haemorrhoids)

Pre Kshar sutra measures:

a.      The patient should be admitted in the hospital a day before operation.

b.      Soap water enema should be administerd after admission.

c.       Shave and part preparation done.

d.      Keep the patient fasting at least for 8 hours

e.      Consent of the patient in written

f.        Proctoclysis eneme 2 hours before the procedure

g.      Inj. Xylocaine sensitivity test

h.      Inj. Tetenus toxoid 1 Amp. IM stat.



Proctoscope Pile holding foreceps
Artery foreceps both Staight & curved Sponge holding foreceps
Surgical gloves assorted size and pair Scissiors
Needle holder Round body curved needles
Towel clips Syringes
Swabs Linens
Kshar sutra


POSITION: Maximum number of patients has lithotomy position for this procedure.

Kshar sutra ligation procedure:

  • The patient is made to lie on the operation table in Lithotomy position.
  • The perianal area is cleaned with Savlon and spirit followed by Betadine painting.
  • The outer area is covered with sterile cloth, leaving the anal area open.
  • Proctoscopy is done and the positions of various pile masses are assessed.
  • The pile mass is protruded outside by asking the patient to strain out.
  • Hold the pile mass with pile holding foreceps.
  • Then Inj. 2% Xylocaine is infilterated around the root of pile masses.
  • The protrued pile mass is held with pile holding foreceps. Slight pull is exerted over the pile mass, so that the base of pile mass is clearly demarcated alongwith the blood vessel.
  • The pile mass is transfixed with curved cutting needle with the help of needle holder and it is followed by kshar sutra ligation.
  • The same procedure is performed to ligate other haemorrhoids if present.
  • The ligated haemorrhoids are replaced inside the anal canal and the kshar sutra is allowed to suspend out.
  •  10 ml. of jatyadi oil is pushed inside the rectum and sterilized gauze is applied on the anus.
  •  T-bandage is tied to keep the dressing in proper position.
  •  Thereafter the patient is shifted to the ward.

Post Kshara-sutra ligation management:

1.       Nil orally for 4 hours

2.       Give liquid diet after that to avoid any type of inconvenience.

3.       Note pulse, temp., B.P. 6 hourly

4.       If operation is done under spinal anaesthesia, to avoid complication give head-low position to the position for 48 hours.

5.       Jatyadi oil P/R BD

6.       Hot sitz bath with panchvalkal kwath 8 hourly

7.       To avoid hard stool, give mild laxative to the patient

8.       If pain is excessive, urinary retention was occurred then go for the systemic treatment.

Mode of action of Kshara-sutra:

Kshar sutra by its chemical cauterization and mechanical strangulation of blood vessels, causes local gangrene of the pile mass and pile mass get removed within 5 to 7 days. No effort should me made to pull out the Kshar sutra or pile masses as it may cause pain and bleeding which is not desirable. The healing of the resulting wound takes a week’s time.

Post Kshara-sutra ligation complications:

1.        Retention of urine – It has been observed that within 8 to 10 hours after ligation, some of the patients complain of retention of urine which can be tackled by frequent sitz bath in lukewarm panchvalkala kwatha or simple warm water. Catheterization is seldom required.

2.        Local irritation – In some of the patients local i.e. perianal irritation is seen which needs frequent use of oil application and hot sitz bath etc.

3.        Abscess formation – In some of the patients (especially who was suffered from interno-external piles), abscess formation takes place which was managed with local application of Dashang lepa with Goghrita.

4.        Haemorrhage – Alarming type of haemorrhage is not a rule with Kshar sutra treatment. However in some of the cases slight oozing may be seen which need no special care except the usual routine line of management, viz. avoidance of hard stool and much straining during defecation.


From the very first day of Kshar sutra ligation light diet like Khichri is advised. Patient is also advised to take plenty of fluids, blend diet, green vegetables and seasonal fruits. Patient is further advised to avoid spicy and fried food and not to strain during defecation.


Finger dilation of anus/Ganesh kriya: From 3rd week of Kshar sutra application or after the falling of pile mass, lubricated index finger with jatyadi oil is gently introduced inside the anal orifice and is gradually rotated clockwise and anti-clockwise for 2 to 3 minutes.

Patient is advised to carry out this practice of this procedure by himself by using the finger stall on right index finger after defecation in the squatting position daily for a period of 1 to 3 months. Such a practice is advised just to avoid any chance of post ligation narrowing of anal opening.


Kshara Sutra Therapy in the treatment of Pilonidal Sinus
Anal stenosis; Causes, prevention and treatment


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *